A sea bill of lading is a cargo receipt issued by the carrier (shipping company) after receiving the cargo, which is also a certificate of carriage contract signed by the carrier. The bill of lading also represents the ownership of the goods carried and is a bill of lading with a property right. So what are the categories and specific functions of the bill of lading? Type of sea bill of lading Two categories of sea bill of lading: Master Bill of Lading (MBL) is a bill of lading issued by a shipping company. The freight bill of lading (HBL) House Bill of Lading, that is, the bill of lading issued by the freight forwarding company. The difference between the two: MBL can directly pick up the goods from the shipping company and the ship owner at the destination port, while HBL must first exchange the ship owner's bill of lading (MBL) from the agent at the destination port, and then go to the shipping company or its agent to pick up the goods. In container liner transportation, MBL is only applicable to FCL transportation, and shipping companies will not issue LCLs (separate orders). HBL can be used for both FCL and LCL LCLs, and HBL must be used for LCL transportation, because LCLs need to issue separate orders, which are issued by LCL freight forwarders. The role of sea bill of lading The sea bill of lading has the functions of receipt of goods, proof of property rights and proof of freight contract. Let's have a look together. The bill of lading is the receipt of the goods issued by the carrier at the request of the shipper, indicating that the carrier has received goods as listed in the bill of lading. The bill of lading is a proof of ownership of the goods. It can be transferred before the ship carrying the goods arrives at the destination port. It can also be used to obtain a mortgage from the bank. The bill of lading is the proof of the consignment contract between the carrier and the shipper. Many sea bills of lading are also negotiable and can be circulated and transferred when certain conditions are met. The bill of lading clause specifies the rights and obligations, responsibilities and immunities between the carrier and the shipper, which is the basis for handling disputes between the two parties in respect of sea transportation.